Bilingualism and education: The Malaysian experience

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Nor Azmi Mostafa


Malaysia is a multilingual and multiracial country. As a result, it has to face many sensitive language issues within the politics of the country. Bilingualism is initially planned in Malaysia. The types of bilingual education and educational policies are influenced by the effects that the government is trying to achieve. However, bilingual education itself is not explicitly advocated but implicitly sanctioned by the government. Bilingual education in Malaysia is mainly based on the types of schools and the medium of instructions in these schools. Bilingual education will continue to be implemented and given strong support by the government, in terms of policy formulation, financial allocation, materials and infrastructures support and teacher training. The main challenges for its success will be public support, changing of mind-sets and involvement of the media.

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How to Cite
MOSTAFA, Nor Azmi. Bilingualism and education: The Malaysian experience. Proceedings of English Education International Conference, [S.l.], v. 1, n. 2, p. 10-16, dec. 2016. ISSN 2527-8037. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 06 dec. 2022.